In our daily life colour is an important aspect as we all love to wear colourful clothing and eat rainbow diet. Dyes may be defined as substances that, when applied to a substrate gives colour. Such substances with considerable coloring capacity are widely employed in the textile, leather, carpets, pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, plastics, photographic and paper industries. The dyes can stick to compatible surfaces through solution, by forming a covalent bond or complexes with salts or metals, by physical adsorption or by mechanical retention.
The textile dyeing industry has generated immeasurable pollution as it is one of the most chemically demanding industries and is the biggest consumer of dye substances. Textile industries expend a huge supply of water and chemicals due to which about 10-15% dyes are liberated into the environment during the dyeing process making the industrial effluents vastly coloured and aesthetically unacceptable and are frequently imported into the environment. Over exposure to these reactive dyes (especially when they are in powdered form), may cause health hazards like respiratory problems due to inhalation of dye particles; it is known as respiratory sensitization to the workers therefore, all these chemicals and dyes must be handled with care. Some other symptoms of respiratory sensitization include skin irritation, watery and sore eyes, itchy or blocked nose, sneezing and symptoms of asthma such as coughing and wheezing. Harmful chemicals include formaldehyde-based resins, ammonia, acetic acid, some shrink-resist chemicals, some optical whiteners, soda ash, caustic soda and bleach. Dyes containing anthraquinone or azo structures are familiar to cause contact dermatitis. Generally azo dyes are considered as a deadly poision, dangerous to work and greatly inflammable. Now a day’s chemical used to yield dyes are usually extremely toxic, carcinogenic, or even explosive. Such type of clothing is also hazardous for babies and kids when they are in prolonged contact with these chemicals; actually these harmful substances are absorbed through the skin, particularly, when their body is warm.
Dyes cause lots of Problems in the Environment:
- Even its small concentrations in the water disturb the photosynthetic activity of algae by absorption and reflection of light which serious influence on the food chain.
- Dyes also have undesirable side effects on exposed organisms as their small concentration (less than 1 ppm) is greatly visible due to their brilliance.
- Dyes can remain in the atmosphere for a long time due to its high thermal and photostability characteristics.
- Dyes and their residues are carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to life.
Spectro Analytical Lab offers all the facilities and instruments for testing all the safety parameters related to textile and dyeing industries. It also provides training and assistance in this regard.