Building Collapse due to use of Sub standard Material is a grave around the world. In order to build a strong foundation & a accident prone structure, Quality assurance of building materials is very. The type & quality of material used for the construction must be planned in advance in order to fulfill the functions expected from them.
The building materials commonly used for construction purpose involves the use of bricks, concrete, insulating materials, tiles, steel, aggregates, cement, soil, fly ash , cast products, clay, bitumen, design mix. Not only, is it necessary to test materials used for construction of buildings, but also for Roads , Railways, Bridges & similar area in the building sector.
Some of the materials used as Building Materials are:-
Cement is considered to be the heart of concrete as without its use, any building structure remains incomplete. The cement is made to undergo a range of physical & chemical tests which is inclusive of Tensile Strength Analysis, Fineness, Drying Shrinkage, Flexural Strength, Air content, Density, Compressive strength, Soundness.
Aggregates include coarse materials used as a component of composite material. They are widely used as foundations for roads, buildings etc because of their high hydraulic conductivity value. The parameters 10% Fine Value , Alkali Reactivity , Chloride Content , Compaction Fraction ,Crushing Value , Impact Value , Los Angle Abrasion , Organic Impurities , Particle Size Distribution ,Specific gravity and water absorption , Sulphate Content are tested for studying the quality of Aggregates.
Bitumen is used as a binder in construction especially in roads, extracted as a residual product in petroleum distillation, the test conducted to evaluated the quality of bitumen includes Bitumen Content , Penetration ,Flash Point ,Softening Point ,Water Content
Brick serves as an important constituent in building sector; the bricks must therefore undergo tests for Apparent Porosity and Density, Cold Crushing Strength, Permanent Linear Change,
Creep Test, RUL, Modulus of Rapture and similar tests conducted to test refractory materials.
A range of tests are undertaken for refractory materials classified as Physical , Chemical, Thermo mechanical, Micro structural Evaluation
An equal priority is given to the testing of kind of soil used in construction, tiles used for flooring, the mortar used to bind the blocks in construction, ceramics used in total joints & the steel & bars used in concrete reinforcement.
Testing at every stage is mandatory being it for Raw Materials or finished products. The testing of concrete structure essentially requires testing without damaging the concrete. Non-Destructive testing in Civil Engineering ensures reliable & quality evaluation of reinforced or pre-stressed concrete structures & can be applied for both old and new structures.
Nowadays, periodic inspections of the buildings are possible with the rising popularity of Non – Destructive method of Testing & Inspection. NDT Testing is used to evaluate the structural integrity of a material for Internal Flaws, defects & discontinuities without destructing the subject under inspection. This technique is applied to evaluate buildings, power plants & industries for their structural stability & for potential damages which are predicted helps to take timely action & reduce the cost involved with the complete breakdown or damage of whole system.
Non Destructive testing is applied for civil and structural evaluation especially for on site. The inspection helps to evaluate residual life of structures. The ever increasing emphasis on evaluating the performance of new as well as existing buildings with respect to preventive maintenance has led to the monitoring of building performance using cost effective technique of NDT Inspection which detects faults and deterioration at an earlier stage ensuring turctural integrity. At the same time, it aids in safeguarding human lives..
Some of the basic types are Liquid/ Dye Penetrant Test, Magnetic-particle Inspection, Gamma Radiography, Eddy Current testing, Ultrasonic Flaw Detection, Pile Integrity Test (PIT), Rebound Hammer Test, Rebar Detection Test, Thermography, Positive Material Identification, Residual Life Assessment.
It becomes necessary to evaluate the quality of material used for construction as an accident can put a lot of human lives in danger in case where the material used is compromised upon.